Biotech Studies 2016, Vol 25, Num, 2     (Pages: 218-233)

From Genetic Resources to Landraces and Registered Varieties; Wheat and Bread in Turkey

Fethiye ÖZBERK 1 ,Alptekin KARAGÖZ 2 ,İrfan ÖZBERK 3 ,Ayhan ATLI 4

1 Harran Üniversitesi, Akçakale Meslek Yüksekokulu, Şanlıurfa
2 Aksaray Üniversitesi, Aksaray Teknik Bilimler Meslek Yüksekokulu, Aksaray
3 Harran Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi, Şanlıurfa
DOI : 10.21566/tarbitderg.281346 - Wheat, wheat products and bread both past and present have been among the most important food sources for the Turkish people. Besides feeding, bread and other wheat derived products bear high cultural, social and historical value. Due to the great values ascribed, wheat is considered a highly respected sacred entity. Wheat is not only crucial for Turkey but also worldwide with its` growing importance in the diet of people. Among the cereal crops, wheat is the most grown after maize and rice globally. Turkey hosts 28 wild relative taxa of wheat and hundreds of land races. There are 198 released bread wheat and 61 durum wheat varieties in 2016. Despite the great importance of wheat, recently there has been a continuous prejudices attitude toward genetic structure of wheat in the media against wheat, charging as if it turned into genetically modified organism after undergoing breeding process, and a harmful food source which triggers diseases such as obesity and diabetes. This review summarizes the wheat genetic resources, the history of wheat breeding, past and present improved varieties in Turkey, and the facts against the allegations pointed out with the false advertisements against wheat and bread. Keywords : Turkey, wheat, bread, genetic resources, land races and cultivars